|By goGreen | July 23, 2011|
Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) also known as capsicum, kampana, or lara is the most widely used condiment all over the world. It is consumed fresh, dried or processed. Sweet pepper is a warm and dry season crop. It germinates well at temperature of 20C to 30C and grows best at around 25C.
|406 blue star||medium tall||elongated bell||continuous fruit set, uniform and smooth the fruit|
|411 big star||tall||elongated bell||large long bell, productive|
|412 beauty bell||dwarf||bell||medium thick wall, TMV tolerant|
|415 uranus||medium tall||elongated bell||productive TMV resistant|
|416 sunny star||medium tall||elongated bell||improved Ruby King type, TMV resistant|
|417 queen star||slightly dwarf||long bell||thin flesh, uniform size, high yielding, TMV tolerant|
|419 lucky star||medium tall||cylindrical||productive, suitable for fresh market|
|1287 neptune||medium tall||long bell 16.5×7.0||fruit, thick flesh, resistant to TMV and CMV|
|1288 vega||slightly dwarf, spreading||square||thick flesh, good shipper, resistant to TMV and CMV|
CLIMATIC AND SOIL REQUIREMENTS
Sweet pepper requires cool weather for best fruit quality, in low elevations, however, planting is the best from October to December. In mid and high elevations, it can be grown throughout the year. Sweet pepper grows well in any type of soil with pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Production is best, however, in deep loam soil with good fertility, easy irrigation, adequate drainage and plenty of sunshine. Sweet pepper should not be grown on the same soil year after year because of disease problems. It is best to rotate the crop with rice, legume, sugarcane and corn.
One hectare requires 100-200 g of seeds, it is best to produce seedlings in nurseries and transplant 3-4 weeks later. Prepare seedbeds by incorporating 2 – 4 kg of manure and 1-2 kg rice hull charcoal/m2. Prepare 1m wide beds at any convenient length. First, water the beds, then make lines across each bed at 7-10 cm apart. Sow the seeds thinly if no pricking will be dome.
To produce a good crop of sweet pepper, both manure and commercial fertilizer wilt be needed. Cover lightly with manure and mulch with rice hull. In the case of hybrid seeds, prick to nursery trays soon after germination. Provide temporary shade and harden seedlings one week before transplanting.
Prepare the area thoroughly. For small areas, make plots 0.75- 1m wide for two-row/plot planting. In bigger areas, make furrows 0.5 – 0.75 m apart for single row planting. Apply basal fertilizer at 5 -7 bags/ha 14-14-14 and 5-10 tons/ha manure. Transplant at a spacing of 0.3 – 0.5 m between hills. Irrigation must be started immediately after transplanting.
Use mulch to control weeds and promote better growth. Rice hull, rice straw or plastic may be used. In case of the latter, make beds 1m wide and incorporate the required manure and fertilizer. Spread the mulch so that it will cover the sides with soil.
Plastic mulching is also important to prevent soil erosion during rainy season. It also keeps the soil moist during the dry season and prevents sudden rises in temperature in the soil when its hot.
It is necessary to remove all the side shoots below the first branch of the main stem to promote fruit setting.
Irrigate weekly. Weed 2-3 times during the growing season. Weeds must be removed as early as possible by hand or using a sickle. If using a hoe, do not hoe the soil too deep as this will damage the roots. Hoeing should also not be done during the latter part of the growing season. It is best to intercrop with other vegetables, such as kutsai, and garlic as well as marigold to help minimize the incidence of insect pests.
Cultivation and weeding should be carried out before file first and second side-dressing. Apply soil to cover the side-dressed fertilizer on the shoulders of the bed to facilitate the growth of roots and absorption of nutrients.
Side-dress with urea (46-0-0) every two weeks at 5 -10 g/hill depending on plant growth. At the onset of the fruiting, use a ratio of 1:1 mixture of 46-0-0 and 0-60.
PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
|Aphids||Intercropping; hot pepper spray, organophosphate|
|Spider mites||Intercropping; spray with miticide|
|Cutworm||Hot pepper spray; Bacillus thuringiensis|
|Fruitfly||Sanitation; fruitfly attractant|
|Fruit and shoot borer||Sanitation; hot pepper spray; synthetic pyrethroids|
|Bacterial wilt||Sanitation; use of resistant variety; avoidance|
|Nematodes||Application of chicken manure; Intercropping with marigold|
|Anthracnose||Crop rotation; sanitation, spray wrth Benlate|
|Leaf spot diseases||Sanitation; spray with Mancozeb. Benlate|
|Virus diseases||Refrain from smoking in the vicinity; rouging|
Start harvesting at 80-100 days from transplanting or 3-6 weeks after flowering. Harvest mature green fruits before it reaches full maturity.
Sort fruits according to market standard and separate damaged fruits. Fresh fruits can be stored up to five weeks at 4C and 95% humidity.Source: Department of Agriculture