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Native Pig Production

By goGreen | June 22, 2012
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Native pigs are important sources of income, food and manure on small farms. Native pigs are sold to friends and neighbors, used during special occasions or serve as a profitable part-time job for family members. These pigs are considered sturdy and are more resistant to various hog diseases. They can survive on kitchen wastes and farm-grown feeds or farm by-products.

Backyard swine raisers may prefer to raise native pigs than the imparted breeds of swine mainly due to the scarcity of capital resources to purchase initial stock and to build a house/pen and to provide commercial feeds.

COMPARISON

Low-cost housing/pen of native pigs

Considerations:

  1. Site – Elevated, near water source
  2. Orientation – East to west orientation; with this type of orientation, floor of the pen is kept dry.
  3. Roofing materials – Cogon, nipa, used G.l. sheets
  4. Flooring materials

-Thickness: 3.5-4″ (88.9-102 mm)
-Preparation: 1 part cement, 3 parts gravel, 2.5 parts sand, 2/3 parts water

5. Space requirement for two heads of pigs: 2 sq m

6. Sidings: bamboo

Note: Gliricidia and Leucaena are not applicable since these could be eaten up by the pigs.

Height of sidings:

36″ (914 mm) for fatteners and breeders
30″ (762 mm) for weanlings and starters

7. Feeding and watering trough materials used:

a. cement
b. wood
c. bamboo
d. halved-tire

                                              Low-cost housing/pen of native pigs

Feeds and Feeding
Common ways of preparing feeds

1. Grinding
This would depend on the age of the animal to be fed. Young animals do not have fully developed digestive system, hence, there is a need for grains to undergo the process.
Example: Corn

2. Cooking
Through this process, the feeding value of some feed stuff is increased. Likewise, calcium oxalate which causes itchiness is destroyed.
Examples: Beans and gabi

Feeding management.

Weight

No. of Feeding time

Feeding

Average

System

Daily Intake

10 kgs (12.2 Ibs)

4x a day

Dry feeding

1-2 kgs a day

45 kgs (99 lbs)

3x a day

Wet feeding

2.2 kgs a day

55 kgs (121 lbs)

2-3x a day

Wet feeding

2.5 kgs a day

Considerations:

1. The number of feeding time presented would minimize feed wastage.

Note: Decrease the amount of feed given to animals with diarrhea.

2. Dry feeding is recommended for starters since they still have less feed intake; that way, spoilage of feeds is minimized.

Examples of Feedstuff for native pigs

Parts used

A. Protein sources

1. Madre de Cacao

Leaves, stems,

Gliricidia sepium

flowers, fruits

Kakawat

2. Ipil-ipil

Leaves, stems,

Leucaena leucocephala

flowers, fruits

3. Cowpea

Leaves, stems,

Visna sinensis

flowers, fruits

Paayap

4. Hyacinth bean

Leaves, stems,

Dolichos lablab

flowers, fruits

Batao

B. Energy sources

1. Corn

Grain

Zea mays

Mais

2. Cassava

Root

Manihot esculenta

Kamoteng kahoy, balinghoy

3. Sweet potato

Root

Ipomoea batatas

Kamote

4. Taro

Root

Colocasia esculenta

Gabi

5. Ubi

Tuber

Dioscora alata

Ubi

6. Arrow root

Root

Maranta arudinacea

Uraro

7. Tugul

Root

Dioscorea esculenta

C. Vitamin and mineral sources

1 Malunggay

Leaves, stems, flowers, fruits

Moringa oleifera

Malunggay, kalunggay

2. Amaranth

Leaves

Amaranthas spinosus

Uray, kulitis

3. Sweet potato

Leaves, vines

Impomea batatas

Kamote

4. Gabi

Leaves, petiole

Colocassia esculenta

D. Water sources

1. Sweet potato

Leaves, stems,

Ipomea batatas

flowers

Kamote

2. Kangkong (upland)

Leaves, stems

Ipomea aquatica

Examples of Feed Rations.

Starter (18% CP)

Grower to fattener

(14-16% CP)

1. Rice bran (D1) – 5.4 kgs. Com bran – 4.6 kgs

Rice bran – 7.2 kgs sapal – 2.8 kgs

2. Midlings – 6.3 kgs Com gluten – 3.6 kgs

2. Kamote (roots) – 5.0 kgs Ipil (leaves) – 5.0 kgs

3. Cassava (roots) – 3.2kgs Rice bran – 6.8 kgs

4. Com bran – 3.0 kgs Mollases – 2.0 kgs

Tugui (roots) -1.5 kgs

Fish washings -1.0 kgs

Ipil (Leaves) – 2.5 kas

Native pig diseases and Their Common causes and treatment

Disease

Transmission

Signs/symptoms

Treatment

A. Bacterial

1. Swine

Dirty feeds, water and pen

Acute form – lameness, vomiting, diarrhea, reddening of skin in thighs and abdomen

Decoction of guava or caimito leaves

Erysipelas

Nose

Chronic form – recurring lameness

Penicillin Streptomycin

Open wounds

Urticarial form – fever, anorexia, reddening of skin in abdomen, inner thighs, chest and back (diamond-shape)

2. Colibacillosis

Dirty feeds and water

Whitish to yellowish diarrhea

Decoction of guava or caimito leaves

Unsanitary condition of peo

Anorexia

Coco juice

Spoiled feedstuff

Swollen eyelids

Antibiotic

Trimethoprim

Sulfa preparation

B. Viral

Diseases due to virus are difficult to treat. There is no specific medication to combat the disease. Antibiotics, vitamins and minerals are given to fight secondary bacterial infections.

1. Hog cholera

Contact with discharges from sick pig

Vascular discharge

Serum

Dirty feeds, water and pen

High fever

Vitamin and minerals

Diarrhea, then constipation

Tetracycline

Coco juice

2. Foot and mouth disease

Contact with discharges from sick pig

Drooling of saliva

Gentian violet saturated with alum

Anorexia (inappetence)

Vesicles in mouth, hooves and udder

C. Parasitic

1. Mange/Scabies

Contact with infested pigs

Frequent scratching

Apply used motor oil all over the belly

Alopecia (hair loss)

Extracts of kakawati

Untriftiness

Thickening of skin

2. Lice (oflenly seen in less hairy areas of the body

Contact with infested pigs

Unthriftiness

Raw seeds of kakawati

Voracious eater but poor feed conversion

Thick, rough hair

Raw seeds of ipil-ipil

Raw seeds of squash

Vaccination program for native pigs

Vaccine

First dose

Next dose

1. Hog cholera

45 days old

after 6 months

2. FMD

1-2 months

after 6 months

Note: Consider disease indicence in the area as to which vaccine would ho given first

Herbal medicine

Plant

Parts used

Indication

Preparation

1. Sambong Blumea balsamifera

Leaves

Colds

Boil leaves in water. Give 0.5-1.0 liter as drench 2x a day for 1-5 days.

Fever

Diarrhea

2. Ipi-ipil

Seeds

Roundworms

Grind and mix seeds into 5-8 oz of water. Given as drench.

Leucaena leucocephala
Note: This is contraindicated with pregnant sows/gilt.

3. Squash

Seeds

Tapeworms

Mix raw seeds in feeds.

Cucurbita maxima

4. Starapple Chrysophyllum cainito

Leaves

Diarrhea

Boil 1 kg of leaves in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes Give 1 cup 2x a day for 1-3 days

5 Saba Musa sapientum

Leaves

Diarrhea

Chop leaves and mix with feeds.

6 Madre de Cacao Gliricidia sepium

Seeds

Roundworms

Mix seeds with feeds.

7 Malunggay Moringa oleifera

Leaves

Anemia

Give 1 cc extract for day old pigs, once 9 day for 3-5 days (if necessary).

8. Guava
Psidium guajava

Leaves

Diarrhea

Boil leaves and give 1-2 glasses of decoction 2-3x a day for 1-2 days.

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 SOURCE: Livestock and Poultry Production (IIRR, 1992, 106 p.)

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