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Lanzones Production

By Pinoy Farmer | March 25, 2008
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The langsat originated in western Malaysia and is common both wild and cultivated throughout the Archipelago and on the island of Luzon in the Philippines where the fruits are very popular and the tree is being utilized in reforestation of hilly areas. It is much grown, too, in southern Thailand and Vietnam and flourishes in the Nilgiris and other humid areas of South India and the fruits are plentiful on local markets. The langsat was introduced into Hawaii before 1930 and is frequently grown at low elevations. An occasional tree may be found on other Pacific islands.


Lanzones Fact Sheet

The problem with lanzones as a crop is that it is seasonal. It produces fruits only in late September through early November and the rest of the year you wait. When the fruits are ripe the bunches are gathered and delicately packed in open baskets called “kaing” and sent to merchants in Manila where they are sold as “the food of romance.” Courting couples inside movie houses and those taking a stroll in Luneta Park are said to favor this most prized fruit.

The tree is erect, short-trunked, slender or spreading; reaching 35 to 50 ft (10.5 to 15 m) in height, with red-brown or yellow-brown, furrowed bark. Its leaves are pinnate, 9 to 20 in (22.5-50 cm) long, with 5 to 7 alternate leaflets, obovate or elliptic-oblong, pointed at both ends, 2 3/4 to 8 in (7-20 cm) long, slightly leathery, dark-green and glossy on the upper surface, paler and dull beneath, and with prominent midrib. Small, white or pale-yellow, fleshy, mostly bisexual, flowers are home in simple or branched racemes which may be solitary or in hairy clusters on the trunk and oldest branches, at first standing erect and finally pendant, and 4 to 12 in (10-30 cm) in length.

Lansium domesticaton occurs in at least four cultivated forms, namely, duku, langsat (lansones), duku langsat and dokong. They differ in tree form, fruit and in fruit arrangement. A typical langsat fruit is borne in clusters of 6-10. An individual fruit is round or oval in shape, about 2.5 – 3.0cm long with a comparatively thin skin. The skin exudes latex even when it is mature. Its flesh is divided into 4 – 5 segments. Only one segment contains large, green bitter seed while others contain small seeds or are seedless. Its taste varies from sour, slightly sour to sweet. he duku fruit is round, from 2.5 – 5.0cm in diameter with a thick (6mm) dark coloured skin more leathery than duku langsat and langsat.

There are usually 4 – 12 fruits per raceme. The duku langsat fruit resembles that of langsat in shape and colour except that it has a thicker skin. There are usually 5 – 25 fruits per raceme. The fruit is round or oval in shape and from 2 – 4cm in diameter. Like the langsat and duku the skin of duku langsat peels easily from the aril. In duku and duku langsat the flavour is generally very delicate and sweet. Duku langsat is native to Malaysia, Phillippines and Java where it is widely distributed. The Dokong is quite similar to the other lansium, fruit is aborate, flavour is sweet and a little samrish taste, the texture is soft and juicy. It is less asomatic compared to the other 2 lansium.

There are two distinct botanical varieties: 1) L. domesticum var. pubescens, the typical wild langsat which is a rather slender, open tree with hairy branchlets and nearly round, thick-skinned fruits having much milky latex; 2) var. domesticum, called the duku, doekoe, or dookoo, which is a more robust tree, broad-topped and densely foliaged with conspicuously-veined leaflets; the fruits, borne few to a cluster, are oblong-ovoid or ellipsoid, with thin, brownish skin, only faintly aromatic and containing little or no milky latex. The former is often referred to as the “wild” type but both varieties are cultivated and show considerable range of form, size and quality.

There are desirable types in both groups. Some small fruits are completely seedless and fairly sweet. ‘Conception’ is a sweet cultivar from the Philippines; ‘Uttaradit’ is a popular selection in Thailand; ‘Paete’ is a leading cultivar in the Philippines. The langsat is ultra-tropical. Even in its native territory it cannot be grown at an altitude over 2,100 to 2,500 ft (650-750 m). It needs a humid atmosphere, plenty of moisture and will not tolerate long dry seasons. Some shade is beneficial especially during the early years.

Langsats are commonly grown from seeds which must be planted within 1 or 2 days after removal from the fruit. Viability is totally lost in 8 days unless the seeds are stored in polyethylene bags at 39.2º-42.8º F (4º-6º C) where they will remain viable for 14 days. Seedlings will bear in 12 to 20 years. Air-layering is discouraging, as the root system is weak and the survival rate is poor after planting out. Shield-budding has a low rate of success. Cleft- and side-grafting and approach-grafting give good results.

The budwood should be mature but not old, 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 in (6.5-9 cm) long, 1/4 to 3/4 in (6-20 mm) thick, and it is joined to rootstock of the same diameter about 2 1/2 to 4 in (6.5-10 cm) above the soil. Some preliminary experiments have been conducted in Puerto Rico with hormone-treated cuttings under intermittent mist. Whitman found that a potted cutting 3 to 4 in (7.5-10 cm) long, will root if covered with a clear plastic bag.

Varieties

Duku

Paete

Longkong

Site Selection

Preparation of Planting Materials

Land Preparation

Planting

Care and Management

1. Ring weeding should be done when necessary.

2. Shallow cultivation of the plant to a radius of at least 1 m should be done twice a year or as the need arises.

3. Mulch the tree with coconut husks or grasses to conserve soil moisture.

4. Pruning

5. Flower thinning

6. Fertilization

Fertilization Schedule

Plant Age/StageKind of FertilizerRate/Plant
a) Vegetative stageAmmonium Sulfate
(21-0-0) or
Urea (46-0-0)
100-200 gm/
tree/year
b) Bearing stageComplete Fertilizer
(14-14-14)
5-8 kgs/tree/year
(after harvest)

Drill or broadcast the fertilizer 1 m away from the base of the plant depending upon the topography of the land.

Pests and Diseases

Insects Pests of Lanzones

1. Bark Borer

a. Proxinonena sp.

b. Cossus sp.

c. Gold-banded Moth

2. Twig Borer (Cerambycid Beetle) – The larva bore into the stem or twig of the lanzones trees resulting in the death of plant tissue. To Control, damage plant parts must be pruned and burned.

Pest Control

1. Mechanical Method – Scraping and pruning infested portions.
2. Chemical Method – Application of insecticide after mechanical operations in knocking out the borer.

Diseases

1. Root Rot

Control:

2. Scab

Control: Spray Copper Hydroxide(Kocide) or Copper Oxychloride)

Harvesting

Post Harvest Handling

sources: by Orlando Pascua of http://www.hvcc.da.gov.ph, http://www.msc.edu.ph

Topics: Crops & Vegetables, Farming Methods | 6 Comments »

6 Responses to “Lanzones Production”

  1. Gin dequito Says:
    September 17th, 2009 at 7:25 am

    Dear

    Aside from fresh fruits of lanzones there are other option to create such as juice, candy, pastries, etc? Please supply me with other info. regarding lanzones production & market.

    Thanks

    Gin

  2. Benjamin Tan Says:
    October 18th, 2009 at 11:03 pm

    Hi,

    I would like to have more information on how to maintain lanzones tree (giving more fruits). And is it true that 5-8 kg per tree is the only capacity to have?

    Thanks,

    Benjie

  3. Rex Panal Says:
    April 17th, 2010 at 12:49 pm

    Hello,
    Can you tell us how to bear fruit lanzones?

  4. Luz's Orchard Says:
    June 23rd, 2010 at 9:19 pm

    Hi,

    I just sinished my lazones & mangoes plantation. I like to know how to maintain these trees can you give us an info. about fertilizing and proning for these trees.

    thanks,

    Luz

  5. Rolly Lualhati Says:
    October 1st, 2011 at 12:26 pm

    Hello.. my neighbor’s Longkong trees have already bear fruits. It has good eating quality and very sweet. But I found out it is not totally seedless. I tried planting some of the seeds and its growing well now. Would the seeds if planted bear the same sweet fruits as its parent?

    Rolly

  6. janelle salcedo Says:
    June 14th, 2012 at 12:03 pm

    Hi! could you provide me some info why our lansones trees,9 years old, are bearing flowers but then it does not turn into fruits but instead fall down into the ground after a month…our trees used to bear fruits 2 years ago.

Comments