|By pinoyfarmer | March 10, 2010|
Scientific name: Persea Americana
Ang abokado ay isang uri ng prutas na nabubuhay sa mga maiinit na bansa tulad ng Pilipinas, Indonesia at ilan pang mga tropikal na bansa. Ito ay mayaman sa bitamina A kung saan pinalilinaw nito ang ating mata, samantalang ipinagbabawal naman ito sa mga taong may alta-presyon sapagka’t pinalalapot nito ang dugo sanhi ng pagtaas nito.
I. Ang dahon ng abokado ay gamot sa taong nagtatae at gamot din sa namamagang gilagid. Nag-aalis ng nerbiyos, sakit ng tiyan, lalamunan, rayuma at sakit sa balat.
Maglaga ng sariwang dahon (o tuyo) gawing tsaa. Uminom palagi hanggang sa mawala ang nararamdamang sakit.
II. Sakit sa ngipin
P. americana, or the avocado, has a long history of being cultivated in Central and South America; a water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to A.D. 900, was discovered in the pre-Incan city of Chan Chan. The earliest known written account of the avocado in Europe is that of Martín Fernández de Enciso (c. 1470–c. 1528) in 1518 or 1519 in his book, Suma de Geografía que Trata de Todas las Partidas y Provincias del Mundo. The first written record in English of the use of the word ‘avocado’ was by Hans Sloane in a 1696 index of Jamaican plants. The plant was introduced to Indonesia by 1750, Brazil in 1809, the Levant in 1908, and South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century.
The word “avocado” comes from the Nahuatl word ?huacatl (“testicle”, a reference to the shape of the fruit). Historically avocados had a long-standing stigma as a sexual stimulant and were not purchased or consumed by any person wishing to preserve a chaste image. Avocados were known by the Aztecs as “the fertility fruit”. In some countries of South America such as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay, the avocado is known by its Quechua name, palta. In other Spanish-speaking countries it is called aguacate, and in Portuguese it is abacate. The fruit is sometimes called an “avocado pear and alligator pear (pear due to its shape, and alligator due to the rough green skin of some cultivars). The Nahuatl ?huacatl can be compounded with other words, as in ?huacamolli, meaning “avocado soup or sauce”, from which the Mexican Spanish word guacamole derives.
The tree grows to 20 m (69 ft), with alternately arranged leaves 12 centimetres (4.7 in) – 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, 5 millimetres (0.2 in) – 10 millimetres (0.4 in) wide. The pear-shaped fruit is 7 centimetres (2.8 in) – 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, weighs between 100 grams (3.5 oz) – 1,000 grams (35 oz) grams, and has a large central seed, 5 centimetres (2.0 in) – 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in) long.
The subtropical species needs a climate without frost and with little wind. High winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flowers, and affect pollination. In particular, the West Indian type requires humidity and a tropical climate which is important for flowering. When even a mild frost occurs, premature fruit drop may occur, although the Hass cultivar can tolerate temperatures down to ?1°C. The trees also need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep. Yield is reduced when the irrigation water is highly saline. These soil and climate conditions are available only in a few areas of the world, particularly in southern Spain, the Levant, South Africa, Peru, parts of central and northern Chile, Vietnam, Indonesia, parts of southern India, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Central America, the Caribbean, Mexico, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Florida. Each region has different types of cultivars. Mexico, the center of origin and diversity of this species, is the largest producer of the Hass variety, with over 1 million tonnes produced annually.