|By pinoyfarmer | September 20, 2007|
The optimum potential of the goat as one of the main sources of milk and meat has not been fully tapped in the Philippines. The goat is popularly known as the poor man’s cow because children and old folks who cannot afford cow’s milk prefer drinking goat’s milk. Aside from being cheap, goat’s milk is more digestible compared to cow’s milk.
The goat is a clean animal and its male odor is only present during the breeding season. Female goats do not smell. Contrary to myth, goats do not eat trash. They do, however, lick the labels of the tin cans to taste the glue on the label’s back.
Goat raising is undertaken mostly by small farmers or backyard raisers. An average of one or two heads are raised by every farmer. Only a handful of commercial- scale goat farms can be found in the country. Annex 1 gives a list of commercial goat farms.
In the Philippines, the goat population is estimated at 2,120,110 as of 1988. This figure shows a minimal increase 0f 5.19% as compared to the previous year.
In a study conducted by a government agency, it was found out that goats are multi-purpose ruminants producing 58.4% milk, 35.6% meat, 4.3% hide, and 1.7% fiber. According to them, these small ruminants can provide the answer to improve nutritional requirements of the predominantly rural farm families scattered all over the archipelago.
II. BREEDS TO RAISE
There are many breeds of goats worldwide but the available breeds in the Philippines are as follows:
1. Nubians -Basically a tropical breed successfully adapted and raised in the western countries; distinguishing features are dropping, pendulous ears and a “Roman nose’.
2. Jumna Pari - from India; thrives very well in the topics.
1. Saanen – Originated from Switzerland, pure white to off-white in color, has the highest milk production.
2. Toggenburg - Also from Switzerland; smaller than the Nubian and Saanen; distinguishing features are white markings on the face, legs and tail; erect ears like the Saanen.
3. Alpine - Also a European breed; colors range from off-white to red to black.
Does should preferably be purchased from your locality or from an area with similar climatic conditions.
Larger size native or grade does, not less than 25 kilos in body weight and those that have given birth at least once should be selected. Avoid buying initial stocks from stock markets, for adult does sold from these are generally productively undesirable or are poor in character. The reason for this is that farmers sell to the stock market only does which he no longer likes because of obvious reasons. The udder should be palpated for size, and for detection of lumps and abnormalities. General well being can be easily gauged from appetite and from the eyes which would be alert and the pupils well formed.
A minimum of two purebreed bucks of different breeds is mandatory. The generally accepted buck to doe ratio is 1:35. Progeny bucks or bucks that have successfully mated, and at least a year old are desirable. Select a buck with a good producing line based from the records of the farm sources. Demand for its records and pedigree when purchasing one. This way you can avoid buying a replacement buck which may be of the same family. Do not sacrifice price for an inferior buck. Replace bucks as often as possible, preferably every three years, to prevent inbreeding.
Goats are social animals. Family relationships often remain for the whole life of the species. It is usual to see an offspring always at the side of the mother even when rearing a kid of its own. Their pack character is also very evident, with the oldest buck or doe on the highest part of the sleeping area. They also have maintained their mountainous character. Goats prefer an elevated area for resting. The arrangement and feature of the housing, including management practices, must then be adapted to these characteristics.
Goats can be expected to live up to 13 to 15 years, with an average economic lifespan of 6 to 8 years.
In temperate countries goats kid only once a year, with the breeding season from late summer to early winter. In the Philippines, does come in heat year round with an average kidding interval of about 8 to 9 months. This is an advantage, for more kids can be expected.
To effectively manage goats, therefore, basic facts, feeding, and reproductive characteristics must be taken into consideration before planning a management operating procedure. Attempts to raise goats in a commercial way like what is done to pigs, poultry and cattle without considering the above characters have mostly failed.
There is, at present, an ongoing argument on whether to raise goats in pasture or under confined feeding. Comments and observations have been made and shown the property dewormed goats on pasture tend to perform better than those under close confinement. This can be traced to the fact that under range conditions, goats have liberal access to a variety of forage, which very well suits their feeding character. However, this entails a wider pasture land requirement, resulting to lesser breeding and herd supervision and a more frequent deworming schedule, which in the long run will prove more costly than the confined feeding method. Attempts have been made by several commercial raisers to combine the two methods, that is, grazing the goats during a limited time of the day and feeding in confinement for the remaining hours. They found goats to perform more creditably when grazed in the early morning from sunrise up to 9 AM and then fed in confinement for the rest of the day. Such schedule can be effectively utilized depending on available land and labor.
Whether on range or confined feeding, housing provisions are necessary. Basically, a goat house or shed must be built to provide shelter for the animals against the elements and from other animals. All goats are afraid of rain and wetness, as these make them prone to pneumonia. Goats also prefer to sleep in elevated areas, such that elevated sleeping platforms, like a stair type arrangement, must be provided. It must be well ventilated, well drained and easy to clean. Feeding racks (silage, water, mineral and concentrate) should be accessible to both goats and caretaker, preferably in the front of the aisle. Flooring should be included and elevated at least about 15 degrees to facilitate cleaning and drainage.
Separate pens should be provided for lactating does, dry does, kids, growers and bucks. The buck pen should be placed in such a way that it will always be visible to the breeding does yet far enough as to avoid transfer of the typical goat smell in case of lactating does when milk is to be sold.
Space Requirement for Goats
Floor space (sq. meter )
Does, bucks and adults – 0.75 – 1.50
Growing - 0.50 – 0.75
Kids – 0.20 – 0.50
Feeding space (linear cm.)
Does, bucks and adults – 15.24 – 25.40
Growing – 10.16 – 15.24
Kids – 7.62 – 12.70
A loafing area, fenced beside the goat house must be provided ( 100 to 150 sq. m./50hd.) complete with feeding racks and water troughs. This must be continuous with the goat house to allow them to loaf when preferred.
Any building material will do, depending on availability and financing, but the flooring must always be of cement to facilitate drying of the floor.
Cogon and nipa roofing materials are preferable in hot and humid areas. Ventilation is of utmost importance. Majority of puemonia cases can be traced to excessively warm and humid interior and sudden changes in temperature. Allow a 0.5 to 1 ft. clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to create an adequate circulation and to lower draft. It is desirable to maintain an interior temperature of 28 to 30 degrees centigrade. It has been established that above 30 degrees centigrade, ruminants are inhibited from eating.
Lighting may also be provided in the barns during the night. Goats consume up to 30% of the day’s intake during the night when light is provided.
Nine-eye hog wire is the cheapest and most effective fencing available locally. Posts must be staked every 2 meters. Goats are fond of pounding their feet and scraping their bodies on the fences so it must be sturdily built. Barbwire fencing requires a minimum of four strands so it becomes more costly besides making goats prone to wounds.
A well developed/improved pasture can carry up to 15 head/ha. When a combines grazing confinement method is observed, provision of a developed 3 ha./50 hd. pasture divided into 9 paddocks will be desirable. Separate pasture paddocks should be provided for the dry doe, lactating doe, buck, kids and growers. Pasturing during the cool times of the day is commonly due.
B. Care of dry and Pregnant Doe
If the doe is being milked, dry (stop milking) at least 1 and ½ to months before kidding date. This will give her enough reserve for the next lactation. Put all dry does in one compartment. One week before kidding, place her in a separate kidding pen. This can be predicted by swelling and discharge from the vulva, engorgement and waxing of the teats and constant lying down of the doe. Avoid any form of noise in the kidding area. Sometimes it is necessary to help the pregnant doe during the kidding, especially to native does bred with pure bucks because the kids are bigger. Dystocia, or difficult delivery, is common in this cases. Be sure that the presentation is right before attempting to pull out the kid. In anterior presentation, both front legs and head are presented and in posterior presentation, both hind limbs come out at the same time. Oversized kids should be pulled out with an even, continuous pressure. In difficult cases it is best to see a practicing veterinarian.
C. Care of the lactating Doe and newborn Kids
Immediately after delivery, wipe the kid’s mouth, nose and body with a clean, dry cloth and massage the thoracic area to initiate breathing. Normally, this is done by the mother, but sometimes the mother is too weak to do it. Be sure no mucus is clogging the airways. The kids must be able to suck within one hour. They may need to be propped up. For every weak kids, feeding colostrum thru a stomach tube usually produces dramatic results.
First-time mothers sometimes are reluctant to suckle their young due to udder pain caused by over engorgement of milk. Restraining the doe for the first suckling will usually relieve udder pain. If colostrum in the udder is not fully consumed by the kid, stripping (Manually milking out excess ) will be necessary to prevent mastitis. The placenta must come out within 24 hours from expulsion of the fetus.
Tie the umbilical cord with a sterile string and apply disinfectant. Allow the kids to suckle for the first 4 to 5 days. It the doe is to be milked, separate the kids from the mother and start feeding using a baby bottle ( 8oz. size ). Refer to feeding guide for dosage. If the doe is not to be milked, the doe can be taken out of the pen for feeding and returned to the kid three times a day and the whole night. This method will ensure greater livability to the kid by not exposing it to the elements, and proper feeding of the doe. Does weaned early (4 to 5 days) usually return to heat after 1 to 2 months.
When the doe comes into heat, introduce it to the buck, not vice-versa. Two services a day for two days is optimum. It the doe not conceive, heat may return in 8 to 12 days. Higher conception is accomplished in the secondary heat. It breeding is successful, milk production drops after one month and the right side of the abdomen starts to fill up.
Goats, like cattle, usually adapt to a routine. Milking periods must be established and strictly adhered to. If milking is done twice a day, say 6 AM and 6 PM, the process should not be delayed or advanced. If possible, the same personnel should be used. Goats can withhold their milk, so unnecessary changes in the routine should be avoided.
Milk quickly and continuously. Milk let down can be initiated by washing the udder with lukewarm water and wiping with a clean towel. All milking utensils, especially the milker’s hands, must be thoroughly clean.
Feed concentrates during milking. This serves as incentive to the goats for them to enjoy and look forward to.
Contrary to popular beliefs, properly drawn and processed goat milk has no offending smell.
During milking the buck should not be near the doe in order to avoid transfer of the typical goat smell to the milk.
D. Care of Weanling and Growing kids
Place all weaned kids in a separate pen, and if possible, according to size. If male kids are to be raised for meat, castrate as early as possible, preferably within the first month. If females are to be raised for milking, check for excess teats and have them removed. Horn buds usually appear within the first to third month. Dehorn when buds reach the size of a fingernail. Separate males from females at the age of four months. Goats sometimes reach puberty at this age.
Start breeding females at 8 to 10 months. Bucks can start breeding at the same age.
E. Care of the Breeding Buck
The breeding buck must always be confined separately but always visible to the does. The buck is the source of the typical goat smell such that direct contact with the doe must be avoided. Provide a loafing area. A one to two year old buck can make 25 to 50 doe services a year, an older buck more.
The following are some reproductive characteristics of goats:
Age of puberty – 4 to 8 months
Cycle of type – Polyestrus
Cycle length – 18 to 21 days
Duration of heat – 2 to 3 days (secondary heat 8 to 12 days after)
Gestation period – 150 + 5 days
Best breeding time – Daily during estrus
Does reach puberty from 4 to 8 months. Best breeding age will be 10 to 12 months, depending on desired weight. Limit yearling buck services to 25 doe services/year. Older bucks can cover up to 75/year. Buck to doe ratio is normally 1:35.
The following are signs of heat or estrus:
1. Mucus discharge from the vulva, causing matting of tail hair.
2. Uneasiness, constant urination, lack of appetite and bleating.
3. Seeks out or stays near the buck and lets herself be mounted.
When breeding, always introduce the doe to the buck, not the buck to the doe herd. Particularly when bucks have not been used for a long time, it will be dangerous to mix it with a herd of pregnant does for they will breed indiscriminately. Two to four breeding during the heat period will suffice.
It is highly impractical if not economical to raise pure-breed goats, unless the main purpose is to sell breeders. The preferred method will be to upgrade local native or grade does with pure bucks. Cross breeds usually perform much better than pure ones under local conditions. Infusion of two or more bloodline into the native doe will elicit a better product due to hybrid vigor. Crossing a native doe with a buck of occidental breed, e.g. Saanen, Alpine or Toggenburg, produces a higher rate of hybrid vigor. Three-way crosses between the native, any of three Occidental breeds and the Nubian have produced a greatly superior animal than any of the three under our conditions. Higher milk production should be the main consideration for it will not only mean bigger kids but also more milk production should be the main consideration for it will not only mean bigger kids but also more milk for human consumption. A maximum infusion of 75% foreign blood line must be observed to retain the natural resistance of the native. Never practice inbreeding unless fully knowledgeable in breeding techniques. On the other hand, intensive culling, especially in milking herds, will largely be beneficial.
Dystocia is very common in crossing natives with large pure breeds due to the invariably large size of the unborn kids. Crossbreed birth weights of up to four kilos for multiple births and up to six kilos for single births have been observed while native birth weights reach only 2 and 4 kilos for multiple and single births, respectively. Thus, in cross-breeding, large native does with a minimum weight of 25 kilos or more and those that have given birth at least once, should be used. Providing human assistance during birth will also be of help in saving kids but this should be done only when necessary.
Anestrus, or failure to come in heat, is a common problem most particularly with high-producing does. Vitamin, mineral and other nutrient deficiencies, infections of the genital tract and hormone deficiencies are some of the various causes. Several hormones, like prostaglandin, progesterone sponges and implants and pregnant mare serum (PMS) have been used with varying rates of success. Routine administration of oxytocin right after kidding and before weaning 95 days) aids in faster expulsion of the placenta, uterine fluids and in the rapid regression of the uterus. Routine Vitamin A, D & E injections to breeding herds also contribute to reproductive well-being.
Fifty percent of breeding problems can be traced to the buck used. Routine check up of the buck’s health condition, especially of the genito-urinary tract, should be done. Preputial scraping, blood tests and sperm motility tests are some very useful procedures to follow in successful buck management. Always consult a trained veterinarian to do these tests.
Remarkable strides have been made in the field of goat artificial insemination, a method of breeding which enables goat raisers to utilized far-away proven bucks for impregnating their in-heat does. In the Philippines this has been successfully done at the National Rural Life center (NRLC) in Dasmariñas, Cavite where the first kid by goat. A.I. was born. The method is also being tried in Iloilo, which receives shipments of frozen goat semen from the NRLC.
G. Other Routine Management Practices
Goat hooves under confinement are usually overgrown. Trimming is then required. A rose pruner and a small curved knife are adequate tools. Cut excess hoof until level with the frog (white center part). Untrimmed hooves will cause lameness and make it prone to foot rot. Bucks refuse to mount when having sore feet.
Especially in milking herds, dehorning is essential. A dehored animal is more docile than a horned one. It will also eliminate unnecessary wounds due to fighting. Dehorn when horn buds appear (2 to 4 mos.) using hot iron cautery. A ½-inch GI pipe is an effective and cheap material for cauterizing. Chemical cautery is not preferred because kids tend to lick one another and may therefore lead to cauterized or burned tongues.
Castration of unwanted male goats is preferable within the first month of age. The testicles at this age are still not developed, thus there is lesser bleeding and stress. Castrated males grow faster than uncastrated males and are free of the goaty male odor.
Tattooing Ear Notching and other Forms of Identification
In order to keep track of individual animals, a positive identification is needed. No recording is possible without this. Ear notching is done more commonly because of permanence and easy identification. Refrain from using plastic tags. Tattooing causes no deformities but requires special tools that may be costly.
For a good breeding herd program, a proper and well kept recording system is necessary. The record must reflect all the essential data of individual animals.
Below is an example:
|Goat No. or Name||Date of Birth|
|Sex||Littermates – Single, Twins, triplets|
|Method of Disposal||Wt. At disposal – Kg|
The other herd data that can be gathered from the above are the kidding rates, kidding frequencies, reproductive pattern, superior buck to doe combinations among others. Additional data are forage production, forage and concentrate intake, health and treatment situations and all others which may seem trivial but could be of value in the future. Each caretaker must have his own record book, aside from the herd record for cross checking.
A. Recommended Pasture Grasses and Legumes
Goats, like other livestock require the same nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water but their need for some of these nutrients is not as critical. Bacteria and protozoa in the rumen of the goat have the ability to manufacture and make available many of the nutrients from such feeds as silage, hay-silage, and other fibrous feedstuffs. Goats are known to relish Paragrass, Stargrass, Napier grass, Guinea grass and Centrosema over many improved tropical grasses and legumes. It is also known that goats can browse on leaves of shrubs and bushes for their feed requirements.
B. Feed Requirements
A practical feeding program for goats, being ruminants, should be based on the type and quality of roughage available. This is because the quality of roughage available determines both the amount and the quality of concentrates needed to supplement the diet.
Confined goats should be given good quality forage for free choice, ad libitum. To increase water consumption, concentrates can be added at the rate of 1 kg./20 liters of drinking water. Provide vitamin-mineral and salt, ad libitum.
Pregnant Dry does
Pregnant dry does should be adequately fed with quality feeds to build reserves for the coming lactation and to nourish the developing fetuses. Does should be allowed liberal access to good quality forage and roughage, vitamin-mineral plus concentrates at a level of 0.20 to 0.70 kg./day depending on the body condition of the does.
Four months old and above
They should be fed enough for maintenance and for desirable growth, but not for fattening them. Generally, a liberal supply of good quality forage/roughage plus 0.20 to 0.50kg./day of concentrates is enough to obtain desired growth rate. Under complete confinement, goats may be fed with quality forage plus vitamin-mineral, and salt, ad libitum.
Bucks should be maintained on good pasture alone when not used for breeding. Two weeks before and during the breeding season, the ration of the breeding bucks should be supplemented with 0.2 to 0.7 kg. of concentrates. Forage, vitamin-mineral mix, and water should be given ad libitum.
C. Practical Feeding Guides
The general herd should be pastured most of the time to lower the cost of feeding and maintaining them. Provide enough space for grazing, but be sure that the pasture is rotated frequently, i.e., the herd is moved to another pasture after one pasture lot has been grazed for sometime. This will keep a pasture from being overgrazed and polluted or heavily infested by parasites. Even if the pasture has abundant feed, it may become a breeding place for parasites if the goats are allowed to graze on it for so long.
Breeding goats, as well as the growing and fattening stock, can be raised solely on pasture feeds. Goats enjoy feeding on a large variety of plant growth so that brush land, together with the common pasture grasses, is an ideal combination for raising healthy goats.
Goats are also selective when it comes to grazing. They eat only what seems suitable to them; hence, there is little danger of their eating poisonous weeds. Goats will be able to live on grazing even if only grasses are available on the pasture. However, they can feed better and grow better if there are different species of plants on the pasture. Leguminous plants can also help improve the quality of the pasture.
During the rainy days, keep the goats shut in the barn, well protected from the draft and provided with a clean solid floor. Give them cut grass or hay to eat. If the weather is humid and cold, and especially if there are strong winds, cheap grain feeds, like rice bran, will help maintain body vigor among the animals.
Care of the herd also includes giving them clean water and salt. Place a watering trough in the pen where the goats can drink any time they like. Also, place enough salt in the pen for them to lick whenever they want to.
TABLE 1. List of Common Philippine Feedstuffs for Goat production
Dry Matter %(DM)
Total Digestible Nutrients % (TDN)
Crude Protein %(CP)
Digestible Crude Protein (DCP)
|Corn Gluten, Feed|
|Rice Bran (cono)|
|Rice Bran (Kiskis)|
|Soybean oil meal|
|Para grass (dry season)|
|Para grass (wet season)|
|Guinea grass (dry season)|
|Guinea grass (wet season)|
|Tree leaves/Browse Plants|
|Source of Ca & P|
|Steamed Bone meal|
|Oyster Shell Flour|
TABLE 2. Feed Requirements
|AGE||FEED||AMOUNT PER DAY|
|Birth – 3 days||Colostrum||Ad Libitum (3 to 5X feeding)|
|4 days – 2 weeks||Whole milk(goat or cow milk)||0.5-1.0 liter/kid divided into 3X feeding|
|2 weeks-16 weeks||Whole milk or milk replacer||0.5-1 liter/kid divided into 2X feeding|
|Grass-legume hay or quality fresh forages||Ad Libitum|
|Vitamin-mineral mix||Ad Libitum|
|Starter (22%C.P.)||Increasing amount w/o causing digestive upset|
|4 months – Kidding||Forage vitamin-mineral mix||Ad Libitum|
|Concentrates (18-20% C.P.)|
|Dry, pregnant, bucks||Forage vitamin-mineral mix||Ad Libitum|
|Concentrates (16-18 % C.P. )|
|Lactating||Forage vitamin-mineral mix||Ad Libitum|
|Concentrates (16-18 % C.P. )||0.3-0.5 kg/liter of milk produced|
V. HEALTH MANAGEMENT
A. Health Management Practices
Have pens cleaned daily and washed at least three times a week. Disinfect at least twice a month. Accumulated feces and urine provides a good breeding ground for disease-causing microorganisms, provide a lagoon or pit to store waste for at least a month before spreading to the pasture. Use as fertilizer for orchards or vegetable garden.
Train personnel to observe sanitary procedures. Separate pens for diseased animals.
Limit visitors coming into the farm, including other animals. Quarantine newly arrived stock for at least a month before mixing with the main breeding stock.
Aside from pneumonia, parasites rank second in causing heavy mortality. From experience, tapeworms are the most debilitating worm problem in all ages of goats, Protozoa-like coccidia and amoeba are also common problems especially in young kids.
Have your goats checked regularly for specific worm load and deworm regularly depending on worm load and seasonal occurrences. Know what kind of internal parasite is affecting your herd before attempting to use a deworming product, or else it will be a waste of money and effort.
Lice and ticks are common problems. When these are observed, apply acaricide or chemicals against lice and ticks, in powder or dust form. This can be done by mixing the powder-form chemicals with 7 to 10 parts of starch or flour and apply as dusting powder. Refrain from using the liquid or spray form.
B. Common Infectious Diseases of Goats
Mode of Transmission
Direct contact from infected or contaminated udder; navel infection, genital or intra uterine infection of dam, contaminated environment.
* Fever, inability to suckle, nasal discharge, coughing and respiratory distress.
* Gradual emaciation may terminate as pneumonia-enteritis combination. Death common.
* Proper nursing in clean, dry environment necessary. Early cases respond to antibiotic treatment.
Mode of transmission
* Direct, through mouth, skin, open wounds or via umbilicus
* Swollen knees, lameless, pain if pressure is applied on affected joint. Fever may be present. Joints involved are hock, knee, elbow and stifle. Animal prefers recumbency, appetite affected with gradual deterioration.
Prevention and Control
* Minimize infection by treating wounds (castration and navel) dressing, hygiene management specially in areas of confinement. Treatment includes wide spectrum antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
Mode of transmission
* Direct or indirect
* Hot, painful and swollen udder. May become red due to inflammation later changing to dark reddish-blue indicating necrosis of udder tissue. Milk may be bloodstained, may contain flakes or clots. Fever, loss of appetite, depression and dehydration; gait or movement of doe is affected.
* Treatment: Intramammary infusion of antibiotics. Early and repeated treatment needed to prevent complications such as gangrene and toxemia.
* Prevention: proper treatment of injured teats with antiseptics; disinfecting udders for milking and proper milking technique. Monitor by surveillance to detect early cases for immediate isolation and treatment.
Sore Mouth/ORF/Contagious Ecthyma
* Characterized by papules, pustules, vesicles and scabs on the skin of the face, genitalia and feet, mucosa of the mouth, rumen, nostrils eyelids, gums, tongue, palate and middle ear. Occurs commonly to less than 1 year old sheep/ goat and feedlot lambs 3-7 months of age.
Mode of Transmission
* Contaminated equipment, fences, manure, beddings and feeds.
* Over crowding.
* Contaminated vehicles and workers.
* Infected suckling lambs, contaminated teats and udders of dams.
Prevention / Treatment
* Vaccinate feedlot lambs after entering the fattening facilities
* Vaccinate suckling lambs 1-3 days of age.
Mode of Transmission
* Direct and indirect contact with naturally infected animals, carriers, implements and other infected materials.
* Blister fluid, saliva and other bodily discharges highly infective.
* Fever vesicles, erosion in between hooves, cononary band (junction between skin and hoof), teats and udders oral mucosa and tongue.
* Raw ulceration follow rupture of vesicles, stingy or foamy salivation, smocking of the lips, difficulty in feed ingestion; staggering gait and lameness. Abortion in pregnant animals.
* Immediate notification of the authorities.
* Designation of quarantine areas and restricted movement of animals; disinfecting areas with virucidal agents (commercial disinfectant or lye caustic soda).
* Animal should be kept on dry ground and lesions treated with mild antiseptic (5% formalin).
* Mass immunization and effective restriction in movement of animals and carriers is necessary.
Mode of Transmission
* Ingestion of contaminated feed and water. Aborted fetus, Fatal membrance, placenta, urine and uterine discharge are main sources of infection.
* Infected males may transfer disease through natural/artificial breeding.
* Infertility, abortion, retained placenta, persistent vaginal discharge. In males, swollen and painful testicles with subsequent infertility/sterility.
* Blood tests and removal of infected animals.
* Vaccination may be tried.
* Antibiotic medication is found to be impractical.
Mode of Transmission
* Ingestion or inhalation of infective agent. May be normally present in the nasopharyngeal area but predisposition causes flare-up of infection.
* High fever, loss of appetite
* Respiratory distress, salivation, nasal discharge swelling of the throat and brisket congestion of mucous membrane, diarrhea becoming bloody later.
* Prophylactic vaccination.
* Removal of predisposition when possible.
* Early treatment with parenteral antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
Mode of Transmission
* Direct ingestion of infected material, biting flies.
* Indirect, through contact with materials and carriers.
* Sudden onset of fever, depression and loss of appetite.
* Swelling of chest, head, belly and legs, bloody diarrhea.
* Death common in early stages. Colic, abortion in pregnant animals, blood stained discharges, convulsions.
* Dead animals should be cremated or buried deeply under a layer of lime.
* Antibiotic treatments is only effective in early and less acute cases.
Mode of Transmission
* Infection initiated by trauma of the body and oral mucosa. Cases in larger ruminant maybe source of infection in the area.
* Sudden deaths in acute cases.
* Less acute: depression, fever, rapid respiration and suspended ruminatism.
* Typically, not painful swelling in thigh and leg muscles.
* Crackling sensation of palpation of swelling due to gas in tissues.
* Lameless in affected limb.
* Cremation of carcasses.
* Early isolation and treatment with massive doses of antibiotics.
Mode of Transmission
* Direct infection due to introduction of organism in wounds.
* Castration, old ulcerating wounds, dehorning complications. Not contagious to other animals.
* Early stages characterized by rigidity and stiffness of muscles, stilthy gait.
* Late stages: with tetanic convulsions, prolapse of third eyelid, stiff tail, head and neck thrown back; hyper-excitability.
* Bloat and other nervous signs.
* Treat wound with oxidizing antiseptic (hydrogenperoxide) until completely healed; use clean instrument castration, dehorning.
Mode of Transmission
* Commonly through direct infection with parasitic larval stages through herbages, less commonly through skin penetration and intrauterine infection in some species.
* Poor body condition anemia, diarrhea,potbelly and weakness.
* Regular deworming with effective anthelmintics (tetramisole, parbendazole, thiabendazole, pyrantil, etc.)
* Pasture rotation and improve feeding practices.
Mode of Transmission
* Infection with the parasite in the larval stage through herbage.
* As in parasitic gastro-enteritis for general signs.
* Specific symptoms include persistent husky coughing, respiratory distress.
* Regular deworming with tetramisole, albendazole or oxfendazole.
* General prevention as parasitic gastroenteritis.
Mode of Transmission
* Through ingestion of plant mites which are intermediate hosts.
* Same as other internal parasitism, passage of tapeworm segments in the feces.
* Regular deworming (albendazole, niclosanide, lead arsenate, oxfendazole )
Characterized by unthriftiness, loss of weight, anemia and edema.
Four species of trematodes:
• Fasciola hepatica
• Fasciola gigantica
• Fascioloides magna
• Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Post Mortem Lesions
* Affected animals isolate from the flock
* Decline the feeds
* Distended abdomen is painful upon manipulation
* Lose weight and become unthrifty, anaemic and edematous in the lips and intermandilubar tissues
* Ascites may form
* The wool loses its flexibility and tensile strength
Two Clinical Forms of the disease
* Acute form – traumatic invasion of liver parenchyma by immature flukes.
* Chromic form – billiary fibrosis resulting from prolonged residence of adult flukes.
Prevention and Treatment
* Control of fluke infestations
* Prevent the animals from grazing on infected pastures
* Use flukicide/anthelmintics in treatment
Mode of transmission
Direct contact with infested animals or indirectly through environment or facilities.
Constant scratching and rubbing to relieve itching and irritation. Scurfy coat (dandruff) and encrustation of exudate with scabby deposit. Loss of hair, raw skin and bruises in severe infestations. Animals become unthrifty, poor thriving, weak and anemic.
Use insecticide (Asuntol, Ciodrin, Diazinon, Neguvon, Supona, nankor, etc.). In dust from or solution repeat treatment in 10-14 days to kill all nymps which hatch out. Also spray pens and litter. Isolate treated from untreated animals.
Mode of Transmission
Direct and indirect contact with infected animals.
Marked itchiness and irritation with animals constantly rubbing or licking affected areas. Maybe patchy or generalized, skin becomes hairless, thickened or scabby.
* Periodic examination to detect early cases.
* Regular spraying with effective acaricides such as Malathion, Trichlofon,Fenthion, Diazinon, Crotoxyphos or Coumaphos. Interval of treatment should be 7-10 days with 2-3 applications to destroy mites that have hatched after each treatment.
Retention of gas in the rumen, characterized by increased intra-abdominal and intra-thorasic pressure caused by interactions of plants, animals and microbial factors.
1. distention of the abdomen
2. animals become uneasy
3. may alternate between standing and reclining positions.
4. breathing becomes difficult, rapid and shallow
5. ruminal movement are prominent
Kinds of Bloat
1. Green legume bloat – results from eating fresh chopped green grasses.
2. Hay legume bloat – results from feeding whole, chopped, ground or pelleted grasses which is conducive to bloat.
3. Free-gas bloat – result from inability of the animal to eructate usually associated with systemic disease or due to foreign bodies and abscesses, inflammatory swelling, enlarged thoracic nodes, and also dysfunction such as atrophy of the muscles that interfere with escape of gases and favor its accumulation.
4. Grain concentrate bloat – results from feeding bloat producing concentrate such as corn, soybean meal and barley.
Prevention and Treatment
1. Good Management and medicinal regiment in feeding
2. Avoid grinding the hay and other components too finely.
3. Stomach tube should be passed into the dorsal part of the rumen to remove any free gas.
4. Administer 0.5 to 1.0 liters of mineral oil or vegetable oil.
Acute Indigestion or grain Overload
Mode of Transmission
Signs appear from 10-36 hours after dietary changes. Depression, loss of appetite, abdominal distention causing pain and discomfort. Diarrhea develops. Rapid respiration and pulse, incoordination, weakness, coma, and death.
Avoid sudden dietary changes. Treatment generally unsatisfactory. Early cases may respond to high antibiotic levels given orally to reduce population of acid-forming bacteria, (Acidosis) indigestion maybe treated with anti-acids like baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide given orally in warm water ( 1 gm/kg body weight) to neutralize rumen acidity. Systematic acidosis requires intravenous injection of acid neutralized like 5 % sodium bicarbonate repeatedly given.
VI. INPUTS IN PRODUCTION
A. Backyard Operation
1. Goat house
2. Purchase of breeding stock
Veterinary medicines, vaccines, additional feed supplements besides the usual goat concentrates.
B. Commercial/large-scale operation
1. Fixed Investment
a. Goat house
b. Water pump
c. Feeding trough
e. Wheel barrow
f. Pasture grass species
2. Purchase of Stocks
a. Breeding Does
b. Breeding Bucks
3. Operating Expenses
a. Veterinary medicine, drugs vaccines, feed supplements and goat rations.
b. Labor, Fixed or seasonal
c. Repair & maintenance of building and pasture