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Durian Production Guide

By pinoyfarmer | March 12, 2010
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Introduction

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is a distinctive Asian fruit. The tree reaches a height of 40 meters. Its bark is red-brown and peels off regularly. The trunk is buttressed. Its leaves are oval or lance-head-shaped and arranged alternately. The upper surface is smooth and glossy. The lower part is covered with scales and hairs. The flowers are whitish and greenish white. The fruit is green to brownish in color, shaped like a globe or egg.

Adaptation

Durian is adapted to sandy loam and clay loam, with high organic matter, reasonably deep and slightly acidic soil (pH of 5.6).

Durian grows in lowland tropics in elevation up to 800 meters above sea level with optimum temperature of 25-35 0C and 80% relative humidity.

Recommended Varieties

1. Arancillo (ACC. 1497)

The tree reaches a height of 7-8 meters and has an intermediate to spreading growth habit. The ovoid, brownish green fruit weighs about 1,560 grams with Mimosa yellow, firm and creamy flesh. It has mild aroma. It is prolific and consistent, has excellent eating quality and bears off-season fruits.

2. Atabrine (DES 806)

The tree has spreading growth habit with simple, alternate, dark green oblong leaves. It has ellipsoidal, greenish yellow fruit with Naples yellow, smooth and firm flesh.

3. Mamer (DES 916)

Like other varieties, Mamer reaches about 7-8 meters in height. It has simple, alternate, dark green oblong leaves. Its fruit is ellipsoidal green and with flesh which is smooth and firm and Mimosa yellow in color.

4. Chanee (AC 2815)

The tree has a spreading growth habit. Its simple, oval-oblong leaves which are very dark green above and cinnamon colored beneath are arranged alternately. It has ovoid, green to greenish brown fruit and smooth and firm golden yellow flesh.

5. Monthong

The tree reaches a height of 8-9 meters and has ovoid green to greenish brown fruit with creamy yellow flesh. It has simple, alternate very dark green leaves which are linear-oblong in shape.

6. Oboza

The tree is strong with drooping branches and simple, alternate dark green, linear-oblong leaves. It has green fruit which is ellipsoidal in shape. The flesh is yellow in color and firm, soft and buttery.

7. Puyat

Like Oboza, Puyat is strong with drooping branches and has intermediate growth habit. However, it has cylindrical greenish brown fruit with chrome yellow, firm, soft and buttery flesh.

8. Lacson #1

The tree has spreading growth habit with simple, alternate, dark green oblong leaves. It has obovate, brownish green fruit with Areolin yellow, smooth and firm flesh.

Methods of Propagation

  1. Seed
  2. Cleft grafting
  3. Hypocoty grafting
  4. Epicotyl grafting
  5. Patch budding

Cultural Management

Land Preparation

Distance of Planting

Preparation of Holes and Planting

Maintenance

Pests, Diseases and their Control

Plant Parts/Stage of Growth AttackedControl Measures
Insects
1. BeetlesYoung seedlingsSpray with Roxion or Azodrin
2. Twig borersYoung plants, small branches or twigs of old treesPrune damaged branch and burn
3. PsyllidsNew shoots and leaves in young and old treesSpray with Roxion, Azodrin or Decis
4. Brown scaleYoung shoots and leavesSpray with Roxion or Azodrin
5. Haplaphalora sp.

(Bao-bao)

Young shoots, leaves, unopened flowers and fruitletsSpray with Decis, Roxion or Gusathion
Diseases
1. Path canker or

stem canker

Roots, trunkSpray with Ridomil or Alliete
2. Pink diseasesTwigs and smaller branchesSpray with Tridemorph

(Calixim); Triadimefon (Bayleton); Copper hydroxide (Kocide) or Bordeaux mixture

3. RhizoctoniaFoliageSpray with Triamefon-Bayleton, Thiophanate methyl (Topsin M).

Harvesting and Post Harvest Management

A well cared durian tree starts bearing fruits as early as five years old. Durian fruits generally fall from the trees at night when already mature and ripe.

Hand picked fruits have longer shelf life of 5-7 days compared to 2-3 days for fallen fruits.


Maturity Indices

References

Anonymous. Durian Production. Mimeographed Guide. Bureau of Plant Industry, Manila.

BPI-DNCRDC. Arancillo: A Durian Variety. DIS Leaflet Series. Information Service, Bago Oshiro, Davao City.

CEMARRDEC-RACO DA-12. Growing High Yielding Varieties of Durian. Public Information Section.

Loquias, Virgilio L. Technology Advances on Durian, BPI-NCRDC, Bago Oshiro, Davao City.

Pascua, O.C. Technoguide in Durian Culture. BPI-NCRDC, Bago Oshiro, Davao City.

SMARRDEC .1997. Durian Trends, Technnoguide Series (Cebuano), Vol. I No. I. DA Region XI, Davao City.

Sources

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