|By goGreen | December 24, 2011|
Chicken broiler and egg production are the most progressive animal enterprises in the Philippines today. The poultry industry in fact began as the backyard enterprise but has shifted to the formation of very large integrated contract farming operations.
The growth of poultry industry in the Philippines has been impressive but its problems include inefficient management and the prevalence of many destructive poultry diseases and parasites cannot be ignored.
This manual provides technology and management know-how for poultry raising which we hope present poultry raisers and prospective poultry producers may find useful in effectively managing their poultry farms and also help them realize substantial financial returns from their enterprise in this period or high production cost inputs.
The Chicken: Classes, Breeds and Varieties
Breed of Chicken can be classified by its utility. This is based on the purpose for which the breed or variety is most efficient.
Egg Class- The breed belonging to this class is characterized by their comparatively small size. They lay large white shelled eggs, very active and nervous in temperament. They are non-sitters. The earlier selection of geneticist for this class showed record of early maturity that may not necessarily be true with the modern breeds under this class. Examples: Leghorn, Minorcas, Anconas, Mikawa.
Meat Class- to this class belong the breeds that are large, slow movement, quiet and gentle in disposition. Geneticist of the past described them as relatively slow maturing which may not hold true anymore with the present meat breeds. They are generally poorer egg layers and generally lay brown shelled eggs. Examples are: Brahmas, Cochin,Langshans, Comish, White Rocks.
General Purpose Class- Breeds of Chicken in this class are medium sized good layers and the young are fast growers. They are not s nervous as the egg class but much more active than the meat class. Examples are: New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, Plymouth rock, Lancaster, Nagoya, Cantonese.
The general purpose breeds had its popularity period when the idea of the poultry breeder was to hit both products of eggs and meat in one kind of breed. Later developments proved that specialization of breed purpose is better goal for more efficient production. The general purpose class at present has been modified and developed by breeders in the production of broiler chicks.
Fancy class- The breeds under this class may be characterized as possessing decided beauty of plumage or form of having a rare unusual appearance. Most of them are raised chiefly as ornamentals or pets by hobbyists, regardless of their value as source of food. Example: Frizzle, Bantams, Long tailed.
Fighting Class- Since this sport is now legalized in the Philippines it should revolutionalize our original vision that fighting cock breeds has no place place for our study. There are groups of this kinds of chickens now developed by national and international aficionados in this game. Since there are no studies conducted on the breeding and raising of these game fowls, the LAS could not profess any knowledge of what kind and what process of raising will assure a cock to win in the fight. The popular ones are the Ruble, Hulsay, Claret, Oasis
Health and Diseases
AVIAN Pest (New castle Disease)
- Direct contact with the nasal and mouth discharges of infected birds
- Airborne transmission
- Through mechanical means such as being carried by sparrows (maya) predators or other birds
- Human being transmit the disease through infected clothes and shoes
- In young birds gasping, coughing, rattling of the windpipe, hoarse chirping, paralysis, walking backyard and circling
- In adults, coughing and occasional paralysis, abrupt drop in egg production shoft shelled eggs, greenish watery diarrhea
Prevention: Vaccination. Consult your veterinarian for a program suited to your operation
Treatment: There is no treatment for the disease. In case of an outbreak, the following measures could be adopted to minimized its further spread and effect control of the disease.
- Isolate sick birds quickly
- Quarantine the area by regulating persons entering the disease-affected premises of from other farms as well as from one poultry house to another
- Revaccination of the birds if titer (detected by serological test) is already low
- Thoroughly disinfect the houses and premises. Allow to dry before occupancy
- Bury dead birds deeply or burn
Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)
Cause: Mycoplasma organism or pleuropneumonia like organism (PPLO)
- CRD organism or is egg-borne; contracted exposure with infected flock
- Airborne transmission
- Tracheal rales, sneezing coughing watery or sticky discharged from the nostrils
- Foamy exudates in the eyes
- Feed consumption is reduced and the birds lose weight
Treatment: Broad spectrum antibiotics, either by injection or mixed with feeds or drinking water
Cause: Microscopic organisms called coccidian (Eimeria species) usually occurs in flocks below two months of age.
- When birds pick up or swallow the coccidial organisms
- Contaminated feed and water
- Indirect contact thru flies, human beings and other mechanical means
- Tendency to huddle together in a corner
- Decrease feed and water intake and poor weight gain
- Incorporation of coccidiostat in the feeds or drinking water. Use of sulfa drugs. Most feed companies incorporate this in the feed mixture as indicated in the feed tags
Transmission: Exposure to infected birds or to environment with existing virus, poultry nests and feeders
- Initial symptoms are leg weakness and paralysis of one or both legs
- Birds tend to rest on their breast with one leg extended forward and the other backward
- They could hardly reached the feeders and the waterers resulting in the dehydration and emancipation which finally cause death
Prevention: Vaccination with MD vaccine, the most commonly used is the so called Herpes virus of turkey (HVT)
Treatment: There is no known treatment for the disease
Cause: Microscopic Protozoan Parasite
Transmission: Bites of mosquitoes, mechanically by blood transfer as in mass vaccination, caponization and injection
- Severe anemia (paleness) extreme leg weakness, emancipation and nervous signs like twisting of the head
- The shanks and the toes are dry and birds have ruffled feathers
- Greenish-yellow or greenish white diarrhea
Prevention: Control if mosquitoes within the premises and houses with effective insecticides, include spraying the breeding places of mosquitoes. Proper drainage of stagnant water
Treatment: Anti malarial drops like plasmochin, quinine hydrochloride and pyrimethamine combinations were found effective. Confer with the veterinarians
- Housing EquipmentFeeding troughs or feeders
Feeders can be placed inside or along the front of cages. When making feeders, consider the ease in cleaning and avoidance of feed spilage. Feed spilahe may be avoided by placing a metal or wooden strip along the inner mouth of the feed trough.
To facilitate cleaning, the shape and size of the waterers should be semi circular, fairly wide and supported by an adjustable bracket to permit easier adjustment. It may have a removal stopper at the drainage end to allow for easier cleaning
For chicks, the waterers are usually one gallon plastic jars
The most common waterers are the plastic waterers because they do not rust therefore they will last longer
Backyard poultry raisers usually use bamboo waterers. They are cheap but there is a great tendency for slime (lumot to develop) and often times they do not last very long. They need constant changing.
Portable Catching Panels
This is usually made of either bamboo, wood or wire frames. This device comes in handy during vaccination.
In a well-planned poultry house with cemented service alleys, the feed cart is a handy piece of equipment which can reduce the number of hours spent in feeding the chickens. It makes the feeding less laborious and tiresome. In the absent of a feed cart a wheelborrow will do.
LightingIn shade houses, natural daylight must be supplemented with artificial lighting in order to obtain desirable lighting patterns which are necessary to adequately control sexual maturity. A constant or decreasing lighting pattern during rearing is essential to prevent too early sexual maturity. An increasing or constant light pattern is necessary after 22-24 weeks of age.
Supply at least 1 nest per 4 female. Ensure free circulation of air around the nest areas to discourage broodiness. Collect eggs more regularly than in temperate areas and transfer immediately to the egg cooling room which should be located on the farm site. Transport eggs to the hatchery in an insulated van. Pratice daily fumigation of eggs.
Marketing for Broiler
Birds have attained the marketable weight should be sold. Birds should be harvested as scheduled. When harvest schedule approaches the companys representatives should be reminded of the exact date that the birds are to be harvested and the assurance that his company trucks should come on time. This is to ensure that the birds will not consume extra feeds due to longer stay in the farm without any beneficial effect to the grower.
The birds should be harvested within the shortest possible time. There are companies that sell to viajeros. The middle man tend to select the bigger and healthier birds of relatively uniform sizes. This practice should not be allowed since this will disturb the other birds resulting to weight losses and also delays the harvesting.
For independent growers
Alternative market outlets should be surveyed even before deciding to broilers to be assured of the ready market at the time of harvest. Marketing arrangements with local hotels, restaurants, cafeterias, institutional buyers and grocery stores with freezers should be made
Procedures should form associations or market cooperatives so that they could agree on a common prize. Organized producers have some bargaining power with regard to their selling price
Producers will be best advised to compute which is more profitable to sell, the birds dressed or live, and whether to sell at the farm or bring them to market.
The broilers should be sold at optimum weight. More profits can be derived if broilers are sold between 1.3 to 1.5 kg live weight depending on consumers preferences and market reports
Marketing of Eggs
Survey market outlets before investing in egg production. Marketing arrangements must be made with local bakeries, local hotels, restaurants, cafeterias, groceries, or sari-sari store, higher income families and other regular users. This will ensure regular orders for the eggs.
Sell graded or classified eggs. Proper grading or classification can attract all types of consumers. This would also enable the consumers to make purchasing decision on egg size at hand.
Sell only clean eggs since everybody wants clean eggs. Dry or wet cleaning of eggs should be a standard practice on the far.
Reduce breakage and spoilage of eggs to the minimum. Broken eggs constitute losses and render the container unsightly.
ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF NATIVE CHICKEN
Organic Management System
The organic management system us aimed to develop a harmonious relationship between land and animals, and respect for their physiological and behavioral needs. This can be achieved by a combination of providing quality organically-grown feeds and fodder, appropriate stocking rates, animal husbandry systems appropriate to behavioral needs, and animal management practices that seek to promote health and prevent diseases.
Organically Produced Native Chicken
The Philippine native chickens and their upgrades, whether raised under scavenge-based system or free-range system can very well be regarded as organically produced. They are adapated to local conditions and utilize traditional feeds (succulent leaves, buds, inflorescence, insects, earthworms, grains and kitchen discards) coming fromthe farms itself. No synthetic drugs are given except vaccines.
The raising of organic native chicken can be integrated with other crops and livestock production systems. This technology is very appropriate for farmers with adequate range area for the production of native chicken. Organic native chicken production could be done in various agro-ecosystem which include but not limited to orchards, grasslands, upland and hillyland. The meat and eggs should be sold as organic food and should command a premium price compared to the same products coming from commercial exotic chickens.
Simple Cost and Benefit Analysis
The production cost for raising the Philippine native chicken is vey minimal. Chickens are allowed to wander freely and scavenge for all or most of their food.
Under free-range system, almost 75% of their requirements are obtained from the range. Feed supplements can be in the form of grains (rice, corn) chopped coconut meat or kitchen discards.
Market weight is between 0.8 to 1.3 kg per bird. Market age is between 12 weeks up to 18 weeks old. Price per live is between PhP 80 to PhP 200. Eggs which are about 40 to 45 grams (small) sell between PhP 5 to PhP 6 per piece. Most are paid in premium price because of their unique wuality attributes including distinct flavor, leanness, texture and pigmentation. Eggs are likewise valued because of the intense yellow pigmentation of the yolk.
University of the Philippines Los Baños – Institute of Animal Science